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 練習問題 

【1】I think it extremely dangerous, so far as Western civilized communities



are concerned, to imagine that there are better systems than democracy.



【2】In 1968, when I first went to Japan, it was so commonly assumed that



all foreigners were American, that I was often asked as a first question, “What



state are you from?”



【3】It is probable that it is because of the wider spacing between individuals



which is usual in the countryside that rural folk are less tense, more friendly



and better mannered than urban people.


【4】While speech is more effective in rapid and easy communication with



people who are present, it is writing which makes possible effective



communication over time and space



【5】The clothing style of television newscasters has a strong influence on



whether we trust them or not. When newscasters dress more conservatively,



the ratings are high, probably because this type of dress is consistent with



what we expect newscasters to wear.









【6】Everyone knows a language. After all, five-year-old children are almost



as good at speaking and understanding it as their parents are. Yet the ability



to carry out the simplest conversation requires profound knowledge that



speakers are unaware of. This is as true of speakers of Japanese as of English



speakers.




【7】In the earliest stages of man’s development he had no more need of



money than animals have. As he became more civilized, however, he began to



want better shelter, more efficient tools and weapons, and more comfortable




and more lasting clothing than could be provided by his own neighborhood or



by the work of his own unskilled hands. For these things he had to turn to the



skilled people. It is then that the question of payment arouse.




【8】Language, like other forms of social activity, has to be appropriate to the



speaker using it. This is why in many communities men and women’s speech



is different. In certain societies, a man might be laughed if he used language



inappropriate to his sex.








【9】The factories were built in a few special areas where water or stream



power could be used to drive the new machines. People who needed work had



to move to industrial areas working for very low wages. In order for a family



to earn a living wage, many women and children also went to work in the



factories and coal mines. It cost less to employ women and children, and soon



they were two-thirds of the work force.




【11】The decisions of the oil-producing countries to raise the price of oil left



millions people unemployed in the west.




【12】So enthusiastic were the audience that not until the singer had given



another encore would they leave the concert hall.




encore:アンコール曲



【13】Japanese, like most of the world’s population, have to maintain a



wardrobe that is suitable for wide seasonal variations in weather. It may,



however, be difficult for some Japanese mothers, depending on their economic



situation, to meet the constant needs of their growing children for new



clothes.  



wardrobe:衣服
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【2005/05/07 20:47 】 | 未分類 | コメント(0) | トラックバック(2) | page top↑
付録-① 文型と意味
 英語の文型で動詞の意味が決まるということは、逆に言うと「単語が違っていても同じ文型は同じ意味」ということになる。特にこのルールはV2・V4・V5の3つの文型にあてはまる。

SV2C
 ① S=Cである(状態)  be, remain, keep, lie など
 ② S=Cになる(変化)  become, get, turn, go, come など
 ③ S=Cに見える(知覚) seem, look, feel, sound, taste, smell など

SV4O1O2
大まかに分けると「与える」・「奪う」の意味になる。
 ほとんど全てO1(人)≠O2(もの)

SV5OC
 この文型は、文全体を見て考えないとC(補語)を見落とす可能性があるので注意しよう!よく下線部和訳で狙われる!
 make, find, get, keep, leave, keep, let, have を見たらV5を予想!そして、OとCの間にはS(主語)-P(述語)の関係がある。

☆V5の意味は2つある。
 ① 知覚・思考・発言「OがCだと気付く・思う・言う」→ 人S
 ② 因果関係「SによってOがCになる」→ 人S・物S

ex) 次の文を訳せ。
・He made a mistake in his report secret.


・Old customs have conditioned us to respect our elders.

<解説>
  He made a mistake in his report secret.
S V5 O C
この文での makeは第5文型であり、OとCにはS(主)-P(述)の関係がある。すなわち、「a mistake(S)がsecret(P)」となる。つぎに、makeは「気付く・思う・言う」という意味ではないので、因果関係を表す。だから、訳すときはHe(S)を原因で訳せばよい。「彼のせいで報告書の間違いが秘密になった」となる。

2つ目の文はちょっと難しいかもしれない。
Old customs have conditioned us to respect our elders.
     S V
ここで、conditionの動詞の意味を知らない人は訳すことはできないのかというと、そういうわけではない。usとto respect our eldersを見て気付くことはないだろうか。respect our elders「年上を尊敬する」とあるが、「誰が」年上を尊敬するのだろうか。「尊敬する」のは人間の行為であり、our elders「我々の年上の人」とあるので、この文ではusしか考えられない。すると、「us(S)-respect our elders(P)」の関係があるとわかる。動詞の後ろにS-Pの関係があるということは、conditionはV5である。
 Old customsは「思う・言う」といったことはしないので、conditionという動詞は因果関係を表すということがわかる。よってconditionの意味を知らなくても、「古い習慣のせいで我々は年上を尊敬する」と訳せる!!
Old customs have conditioned us to respect our elders.
    S V5 O C


☆ちなみに今回のように意味を知らなくても、訳せたからといって単語の暗記をさぼってはいけない!周りの受験生と対等に戦うには、最低限シス単を覚えていないと戦う前に勝負が決まってしまうことを忘れずに!)

【2005/05/07 20:45 】 | 未分類 | コメント(0) | トラックバック(1) | page top↑
 『アメリカのビジネスマンとヨーロッパのビジネスマン』

 Americans can take business seriously;for them it is a worthy pursuit for the whole of a man’s life;whereas the British businessman, lacking the support of public opinion, tends to regard it either as only one aspect of his life or as a rather distasteful way of acquiring the means to conduct his private life. The enthusiasm whish the Englishman in the past gave to the army, politics and the diplomacy, the American has devoted to business.
【2005/05/07 20:28 】 | 未分類 | コメント(0) | トラックバック(2) | page top↑
『会話と人間関係』

 Conversation is the informal exchange of thoughts and feelings by two or more people. Carrying on a good conversation is a polished art. Saying that a person is a good conversationalist is one of the finest compliments you can give someone. Like most people you probably want to be a good conversationalist for many reasons. Among these reasons are to increase your pleasure in talking with others, to help you develop new relationships, to help you cement old relationships and to influence others.

【2005/05/07 20:27 】 | 未分類 | コメント(0) | トラックバック(2) | page top↑
 『英語力を身に付けるには』

 You can learn English through the Internet. There is a lot of information available in English on the Net. However, utilizing high technology is not the only way to improve your English ability.

 You can also use newspapers, radio and television for improving your English. When it comes to learning your English, the conventional mass media are no less useful than the Internet.

 Whatever materials you use, you have to keep on exposing yourself to English. In the long run that will make it possible for you to think inEnglish.

 The steady practice of English may not make you as perfect as a nativespeaker of English. It will, however, surely give you a good command of the language.
【2005/05/07 20:27 】 | 未分類 | コメント(0) | トラックバック(2) | page top↑
『太陽の正体』

 Through endless watching, ancient people could follow the course of the sun and tell where it would move. But they didn’t know what the sun was like.

It is true that it can be seen many hours of each day, shining brightly in the sky;but it is this brightness which makes it difficult to watch it.

【2005/05/07 20:26 】 | 未分類 | コメント(0) | トラックバック(2) | page top↑
『文字の重要性』

 It is interesting to imagine what the world would be like if writing had never been invented. Had we had no books, there would have been no scientific development.
【2005/05/07 20:26 】 | 未分類 | コメント(0) | トラックバック(1) | page top↑
『俗物人間』

 I like snobs because I find them amusing. I do not, however, enjoy spending much time in their company, for they usually make me feel uncomfortable. For example, I know a man in America who is wealthy and who enjoys boasting of his wealth in front of people who are not as rich as he.

If I go to his house for a drink, he is sure to give me rare, old cognac from a dusty bottle and tell me how expensive the cognac is and how lucky I am to be drinking it since I could never afford to buy it. One or two sips of this fine cognac is all I take, as I would begin calculating the cost per sip if I took a third sip. I know I could never afford to buy a bottle and I am grateful for his ‘generosity’, but I don’t like being told the price.
【2005/05/07 20:25 】 | 未分類 | コメント(0) | トラックバック(1) | page top↑
『テレビは受身的』

 The criticism is often made that watching television is passive. It is true that watching television is more passive than playing tennis. But watching television is no more passive than observing a landscape, listening to music or reading a book.
【2005/05/07 20:24 】 | 未分類 | コメント(0) | トラックバック(1) | page top↑
『ボディーランゲージ』

Body language is much more influential than most people recognize. It infiltrates every human interaction and provides a revealing, subliminal explanation on what is officially taking place. The main reason it is so important is that it is more truthful than the official elements of our social encounters. We lie much more easily with our spoken words than with our expressions, our gestures and our body gestures.

【2005/05/07 20:24 】 | 未分類 | コメント(0) | トラックバック(1) | page top↑
『アメリカの医療と日本の医療』

 Seeing the doctor in America is so expensive that people look for the best treatment for them. Doctors are very honest and open about the treatment. Patients ask a lot of questions to their doctors and the doctors always told
patients clearly what is wrong with them and what they are going to do next. In Japan, we rarely ask questions to doctors, and it is for the purpose of saving patients from terrible stress and worry that they are not usually told
about their illness. The time we talk to doctors is very short and it takes much time to understand what is wrong with us.

【2005/05/07 20:23 】 | 未分類 | コメント(0) | トラックバック(1) | page top↑
『大昔の発見』
 Until recently, human did not live very long. In the past, there were not many old people. When archaeologists looked at one of the oldest cemeteries in the world, they found that most of the people were less than twenty-five
years old when they died. Therefore, it is probably true that it was by a very young population that most of the discoveries and inventions of the Neolithic
Age―such as the wheel, the calendar and the making of bricks―were made. It is possible that it was by children while they were playing that many inventions were made. It is also possible that many of the old stories, myth
and legends are not the stories of old men but the stories of very young people.
【2005/05/07 20:22 】 | 未分類 | コメント(0) | トラックバック(1) | page top↑
『忙しさに追われて・・・』

One thing I have learned about maintaining complicated life is that it’s one of the best ways we have to avoid looking at some of the larger questions. It may not apply to everyone, but I believe it explains many things about why we have been moving so fast. The prospect of getting reacquainted with ourselves can be terrifying.

As long as we convince ourselves that we are so busy and our work is so vital that we can’t afford to slow down, then we don’t have to look at our own lives and the personal issues that are difficult to face:a marriage that isn’tworking, a career that isn’t satisfying, children we are out of touch with, associations we need to move on from, the creativity we have been afraid to explore, our deepest fears and painful childhood experiences that have been holding us back from leading fulfilled lives.


【2005/05/07 20:21 】 | 未分類 | コメント(0) | トラックバック(1) | page top↑
 『有名人に会いたい』

I have always wondered at the passion many people have to meet the celebrated. The prestige you acquire by being able to tell your friends that you know famous men proves only that you are yourself of small account.

The celebrated develop a technique to deal with the persons they come across.

They show the world a mask, often an impressive one, but take care to conceal their real selves. They play the part that is expected from them and with practice learn to play it very well, but you are stupid if you think that this public performance of theirs corresponds with the man within.

【2005/05/07 20:17 】 | 未分類 | コメント(0) | トラックバック(2) | page top↑
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